While all species can be caught year-round surf fishing Florida's east coast, some are more prevalent seasonally depending on who you ask. The person surf fishing right next to you might be catching one species and you (just a ways down the shore) might not catch any of those. Bait and gear choice play a role in surf fishing, but throwing where the fish are is luck of the draw. And what was biting today, may not be biting tomorrow.
Canaveral National Seashore Alerts lists closures and other relevant alerts. Check before you travel.
This year so far (2019), I've been catching Blue's (I don't recommend sticking your fingers in their mouth:), Snook (Closed until Aug 31,2019, Opens September 1, 2019-December 15, 2019), Whiting, Pompano, Margate, Sail Catfish, Saltwater Catfish, Croaker, Spots (same family as Croaker), Shark, Ray, Redfish, Black Drum, Sea Trout, Sheepshead. Location matters, fish gotta swim.
Check out the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Recreational Regulations or get your Shark Permit by taking the course shore-based shark fishing at My FWC SharkCourse
No boats, just Florida East Coast Surf Fishing